Peace, mercy and blessings of Allah
says ((The Lord God who created the heavens and the earth in six days
and then turned on the throne occurring on the night the day actively
requested and the sun and the moon and the stars, held poised by His
command, His is the creation and the command of God blessed the Lord of
He says (not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor the night outstrip the day, and all floating in an orbit)
He says (We adorned the lower heaven ornament, the planets)
I will talk in some detail about some of the terms of this universe Wasia I wish for all the interest, God ..
In the name of God begin:
Machines astronomical observations:
in the Arab and Islamic Middle Ages there were astronomical machines to
monitor the planets and stars and find out the latitude and longitude. The
scholars were concerned the Muslim Arabs telescopes and rushed to the
innovation, because what they inherited from the Greeks was simple does
not meet the scientific needs, and these were the types of machines,
these types differ according to their purpose. In
these machines draw books including: The Book of strange machines to
the world that Abu Jaafar al-Khazen has included many of the machines
monitoring machines, and a Persian in the description of some of the
machines to Ghayasuddin Kashi said the machines did not mention his
predecessors with a sixth, and with a third. Has
recorded the history of science for many astronomers Arabs invented
some machines astronomical observations, including Taqi al-Din observer,
who spoke about those machines in his book, Prophet, and Zarqali, one
of the scholars of Al Andalus invented the machine quarter full the
machine is better than many of the machines monitoring of his time, and
managed by the to
turn the astrolabe of the year to replace it with a special projection
of the polar projected to the horizontal, and under this transformation
is the subject of the observer appointed in the equinox points, and the
level of the projected level is a given circle passing Bnqtta coups.
Machines and astronomical observations:
of a body of square planar knows his tendency total and dimensions of
the planets, and view the country, and the vicious Alaatdalah a workshop
focused on the surface of circle rate to know the transformation
equinoctial, and of the tendons are four-cylinder boxes substitute for
Episode Alaatdalah knows the conversion trend, and of the throat which
is the greatest machine body meaning and a machine made of brass and consists of five departments: the first day, a half circle on the ground Markozh. And the second circle rate of the day. And the third circle of the zodiac. And fourth latitude. And
the fifth circle and with it the tendency circle solar planets known by
the SMT, and remember the sources Observatory Hulagu Bmragh that
involved one of them and often surprised visiting greatness and
machine bifurcated They are three rulers know them on a chair rise, and
with the azimuth and elevation, half the surface of the ring diameter
of the cylinder surfaces parallel surfaces Smoot knows the planets and a
height of one of the inventions of Muslims. And
with a pocket which is Mstrtan Mentzmtan regularity bifurcated, and
Almhbhh areas and they are many benefits in knowledge between the two
planets of the dimension and consists of three rulers, two of which
Mentzmtan regularity bifurcated and this machine also inventions of Taqi
al-Din the observer, and machinery quarter Almsatri and with Naqbtin
and Alpennekam observational and more machines Astronomy,
which won the attention of astronomers Arab Muslims: the astrolabe and
sundial has given us knowledge of Islamic monuments in many astronomical
instruments invented by Muslim astronomers, and used it in their work,
and some are still preserved in museums.
has been shown that the machines with the azimuth and elevation and
with tendons and Almhbhh Tusi areas and stick all of the inventions of
the Arabs invented it except for the observatories of Albrkir and
rulers, except for the improvements that they entered on the monitoring
machines known to the Greeks and non Greeks. Has been recognized by Western historians of science perfectly Arab workmanship machines astronomical observations.
remarkable celestial phenomenon also known as Milky Way, a phenomenon
known to the peoples of the Islamic world and Muslim astronomers right
to know. It seems that this galaxy metaphor likening the spread of milk out of a Grecian. The Muslims called the Milky Way also known as the Milky Way. The
word galaxy is derived from the verb "c tt" go to him with the authors
of Arabic dictionaries, and there is sometimes confusion in some Arabic
texts between the Milky Way galaxy or the word: brazier, a Greek name
for one of the constellations. The same confusion in the Arabic text of the reciter Muhammad entitled: phases of the moon among the Arabs.
Milky Way has been known to the Arabs in ancient times. In
text language description of many of the fixed stars associated with
the Milky Way, has been submitted Aldeanora a description of the course
of the Milky Way in the sky as seen by the Arabs in ages of ignorance,
and subsequently monitored astronomers Muslims, and stated that the
location of the Milky Way in the sky changes with the different seasons,
depending on the cycle of secondary education in the
sky, and then later described the Indian Ocean, the famous navigator
Ibn Majid, depending on his personal experience in 896 AH / 1490 AD. Ibn
al-Qazwini and Qutaiba and Ibn Majid that some of the ancient Arabs
have understood the Milky Way thick grouping of faint stars was
appointed observer to see the nebulous mass of the theory, which
originated from an old Arab Meteorological separate information is
influenced by Greek astronomy.
described the Ptolemy Greek Milky Way for the first time a description
of a scientific astronomer in his book Almagest, a description that has
become known to the astronomers of Muslims through a series of
translations from the end of the second century AH / eighth century to
the end of the third century AH / ninth century, but the description
unaffected by the book Almagest was used in the description of the
Milky Way elements descriptive of Arab origin, sincere, and also began
to be described circuit Brugia and ended Pkkbh Scorpio close to the
ecliptic, while Ptolemy began the description and ended up at a range of
Centaurus in the southern tip of the sky that was visible him, he is working in the library of Alexandria.
persuaded some Muslim scholars theories of the Milky Way when the
cosmic philosophers, the Greeks of subtitles and annotations. The
conclusions of Ibn al-Haytham and al-Biruni of the most important
studies of the Milky Way, where the Greeks go against theories of
philosophers. Son of al-Haytham is the one who found that the Milky Way is not part of the air, but it must be further in a vacuum. The
Peronist Contrary to the teachings of Aristotle believes that the
galaxy has the same height of a star constants, because the moon and the
planets are not affected by it when going through them.
gather in large groups called galaxies, which contain billions of stars
including the star of the sun and 200 billion stars last. Our
galaxy the Milky Way like many other galaxies, helical and consistent
textures you can see the sun on one arm of State and most of the stars
that can be seen at night swim in the galaxy in the universe Glory to
That the nearest galaxy to us is the Andromeda galaxy, and that away from us nearly two million light-years. When we look at Andromeda, we see the light that left two million years ago Andromeda. This light has traveled 300,000 kilometers per second of those two million years - a distance of amazing really! Glory to the Creator of the universe.
as well because they contain more than one hundred billion stars, viz
thousand million, it is also contain planets, moons, rocks, dust and gas
The solar system:
Consists of the solar system from the sun and all around Maidor of objects, including planets, moons, asteroids and comets. Earth planet in which we live is the third dimension to the planets from the sun. System is a solar systems, planets, systems which contain the stars revolve around the planets and other objects.
Positions of the planets around the sun
Bodies of the solar system:
are many objects that exist in the solar system and are classified into
several different categories, some of these categories is less clear
than others, according to the classification of objects encyclopedia
Star: It is the sun. Sun
is one of the more than 200 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy, and
the sun occupies the center of our solar system, and are 99.86% of its
They are nine, respectively according to distance from the sun: Mercury
- Venus - Earth - Mars - Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus - Neptune - and
Satellite: Satellite or disciples are natural objects smaller than planets revolve around it.
Satellites: the bodies of small man-made and launched by the orbiting planets, especially Earth.
of industrial space: the remains of the wreckage or satellites,
vehicles and stations Vsaúah man-made, and this is usually found around
Dust and other small particles orbiting planets.
the objects of which the planets formed, which is about the size of
objects smaller than the planet formed at the beginning of the solar
system and is not now exist. The term is sometimes used to refer to meteorites and comets, or particle diameter less than 10 km
millions of rocky objects of different shapes and sizes revolve in an
orbit around the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, are located
along its orbit and thus constitute a kind of belt and this is called
the orbit of this asteroid belt.
the objects orbiting the sun in orbits rectangular, some up to beyond
the borders of our solar system and the approach of one of the sun
covered with ice, which evaporates, leaving behind a cloud in the form
of guilt. The buyer and the largest bloc after the sun in the solar system and constitutes 0.1% of the mass.
The inner planets and outer planets:
Our solar system planets are divided into two parts, separated by a belt asteroids:
- The inner planets: the four: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
planets are there for her from the sun and rock composition and the
relative small size as the diameter of the Earth Loehr largest planets
of this section only 12,756 km, is also characterized by this section
includes being the only planet known so far that it is the life of our
planet Earth. In addition to the small moons (3 satellites) and one of the Earth and Mars two and not Mercury and Venus satellites.
- The outer planets: the five remaining planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
exception of Pluto, the smallest planets of the solar system at all,
this section is characterized by planets remaining four in terms of
being a (gas) configuration and a huge size: Vneptun the smallest of
these planets, four more than a diameter of diameter of the Earth by
about four times, ie the diameter exceeds the diameter planets section
procedure combined and a half times. Frequently characterized as satellites: 8 for Neptune and 16 of the buyer and the Saturn Uranus 18 and 20 satellites. This
has all four episodes of the planets revolve around common with that is
that Saturn's rings and that only due to the small size of the rings of
A picture of the planets of the solar system with Earth's moon, except Pluto
Each of the nine planets, moons except Mercury and Venus. In
the solar system also Wisma Kuiper belt (including Koawar) and the Oort
Cloud beyond Pluto is icy asteroids and from our Lord.
The solar system:
The Greeks called the sun helios. And the Romans who called the sol. The beginning of the formation of the solar system solar system 4.6 billion years ago Xahabh rotary gas. With
time, refrigerate the cloud, and gathered together to be large objects
composed of planets and what is left of the initial materials formed
comets and space objects that wander in silence between the solar
100 million years the center of heated gas cloud ball hard and exploded
a nuclear explosion severely Ttoldachamms star like a star in any
biography of his life end death. The sun is the star of the billions of billions of stars in the universe. Discovering
all of the chemicals your body starting from the calcium in your bones
in your hair until the zinc had been formed in the hearts of stars
raging for 12 billion years. And light to cut billions of years we receive from the stars of the Earth. And to give us an indication of the size of the star, weight and age and chemical components of star light during this newcomer.
And to Okdmon observed movements of the planets that were see from above the Earth at night. These planets other than the sun and other stars to Aionnbos of light shines directly where they reflect sunlight Kalmraya. And the sun is a star in the center of the solar system revolves around all the planets. The
surface of the fireball has always incandescent temperature 5500 ° C
and heart temperature reaches 15.6 million degrees Celsius. Large size
and the sun is larger than the size of the land so it can accommodate
more than one million land inside. They revolve around itself detects round rotation about a central axis, as in the planets around them. However, this rotation is not as easy or flow, which revolve around the Earth itself. Activities are located above the sunspot intersect the sun when Ghazadtha together during the turn-around with them. And the sun is not a spin rotation aerodynamically as a running ground.
Because the sun is not a solid mass. For this gas poles Two Suns revolve at different speeds for the gas around the equator. Which makes them stray magnetic fields, and this causes deviations solar magnetic spots appear dark on the surface of the sun. This complexity in the magnetic field makes it shrinks too much and makes the north and south poles exchanging their places. This process is repeated continuously. And called the solar cycle Solar cycle. The full cycle takes 22 years. And travel to the sun is impossible no matter how severe the vehicles carrying high temperature. And
the inability to access not only because of the intense heat, but the
solar wind around the very severe to the point of change of the route of
any vehicle approaching from the sun to the severity of this wind. And
the sun made its appeal to the severity of the planets in place revolve
around the center of the sun.
Date of monitoring the solar system:
Ancient astronomers were busy perimeter space for thousands of years. They observed a luminous dots wander among the stars in the sky they shot them planets. And fired with the names of Roman are:
Jupiter (Jupiter), which means king of the gods.
Mars (Mars) god of war and its meaning.
Mercury (Mercury) and its meaning in Romanian messenger of the gods.
Venus (Venus) and its meaning in Romanian God of love and beauty.
Saturn (Saturn), which means Abu Jupiter and god of agriculture.
Astronomers have observed the ancient asteroids and meteors that have a glowing tail of a tumble. The Arabs called the star or the tail.
The ancients believed that the earth is center of the universe. And all the stars including the sun revolves around it. But
Koprnic in the 16th century, including the proven beyond a doubt that
the earth and the planets in our solar system revolve around the sun in
the oceans. Did
not believe him until astronomers came Newton's laws of motion and
develop. The earth may seem to us that they place a large and beautiful.
While Jupiter is heavier, including 317 times older than she and Saturn by weight 95 times. Despite the size of these planets, we find the sun with only 99.98% of the mass of the solar intensity of its appeal. And the sun grows from the earth about 109 times in size. After the invention of the telescope (the telescope) discovered three planets in the solar system. Is the planet Uranus (in 1781) and Neptune (in 1864) and Pluto (in 1930). As I discovered thousands of small-scale objects Kalmznbat and asteroids.
Planets near the sun:
And called on the four planets near the sun (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) planets floor. Because
it has a rock on the surface and the four rocky planets, this so-called
terrestrial planets, the four relatively small it is made up of the
same material on the ground. The
four planets beyond the orbit of Mars is Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and
Neptune called the giant gaseous planets because they are gaseous
planets and there is no ground to stand above it. The planets are also classified according to physical properties. Planets
of the four terrestrial Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars called
Earth-like planets or the inner planets because their orbits within the
Earth's orbit around the sun. A heavy and small, rocky crust and rigid
in her heart Mushorat metal except Mercury gap gas leaking from light
elements to the lack of power of its appeal. Unlike
the giant planets gaseous, which lies beyond the Earth's orbit, called
the planets buyer Jovian planets. All Ahjammehoctladtha great but the
intensity of a few is the buyer heavier planets combined.: Victlth
heavier than the Earth 318 times and size larger than the size of 1300
times, making the density less equivalent to quarter the density of the
and its mass equivalent to 95 times the weight of the earth and its
density is less than the density of water equivalent to 1 g / cm 3. Gas giant planets procuring heavy atmosphere composed of hydrogen and helium and its compounds. This consists of the planets from the gas and liquid and there is no water. It has rings around it and many moons. These seminars consisting of hydrogen and helium gas and ice water, ammonia and methane and carbon monoxide. The planet Blutungda there on the edge of the solar system. And regarded by many as guilty of great and not a planet. Because
of its components like the components of the comet, which usually
consists of ice and rocks, but its orbit is quite different from the
rest of the orbits of comets and planets. Alcoa Cup and beyond the nine planet Pluto is the youngest but Mguet ice steel by more than four terrestrial planets.
also terrestrial planets called planets, the lower or inner planets
because their orbits are located between the Earth and the Sun and giant
planets gas called planetary higher because the orbit behind the
Earth's orbit. And planets Alerillh four Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars
resembles Earth in size and components of chemical and density. But the period of rotation about the same ranging. While
we find Mars and the earth Adorkel them on the same full cycle every 24
hours, we find Venus is about the same in 249 days.
Giant planets far:
gas giant planets Kalmstrae, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune found larger
than the terrestrial planets and their atmospheres thick and Ghazi. And less intensity and duration of spin around itself ranging from 10 hours to the buyer and 15 hours to Neptune. This rapid rotation causes the Tfltah poles by 2% -10%, which makes the planet elliptical.
And almost all the planet and some moons have an atmosphere surrounding it. The earth surrounding atmosphere consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The
faces of Venus by the proportion of Aalahoktifah of carbon dioxide and
traces of toxic gas sulfur dioxide, making it difficult life it. While
the atmosphere of Mars by the carbon dioxide by a few. But the planets
Saturn and Neptune Oranc and the high proportion of gaseous hydrogen and
approaching the planet Pluto from the sun Atrkerk faces and keep away
from them when in orbit shrinks and freezes and exhibits Kalmznb. If you visit a planet of nine planets will vary your age and your weight on it. Because each planet its own gravity and Sneineh days and duration of which vary from planet to another. It
also differs in compressed air and the length of its orbit around the
sun and gravity and temperature and the components of faces and density.
Moons of the solar system:
are more than 100 satellite orbiting in our solar Kwakbhaalmokhtlfah
They range in size between objects larger than our moon to small
objects. Many of these satellites have discovered planetary space vehicles and their image. Joe and some of her surroundings Kqmr Titan around Saturn. And the other faces a Kqmr Jinmad magnetic fields around Jupiter. And one of the most active volcanic moons in the solar system. Europe
and the moon around Jupiter icy moon while Jinmad see in the pictures
it seems the movement of ice sheets in its surface. Planetary
satellites and some comets is a family attraction of the planet itself
was considered belonging to the planets moons Phobos and Deimos Kqmra
about Mars and the moons around Jupiter and the moon Phoebe on Saturn
and its moons of Uranus and the new moon Nereid Neptune. .
Since 1610 and until 1977 was thought that the planet Saturn is the only planet that has rings around it. But
now we know that the planets Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have a ring
system, although Saturn's largest ring of these planets. The components of the seminars vary in their bodies the size of the dust, rocks and ice blocks. Most
planets have magnetic fields extending in space around the planet and
each of these areas revolve with the rotation of the planet itself to
sweep with charged particles around it. And the sun also have magnetic field around it which attracts all of the solar system inside.
Why do the planets and stars?
Consists of the planets and the stars of the clusters of shrunken intensive and huge clouds of gas and dust between the stars. The
material in these clouds in constant motion until the drawing itself in
the movement for a spin pile attractiveness of the galaxy. As a result of this movement seem when we see the cloud from a point near the center as she walked slowly. This
rotation can be described as the determination of angular angular
momentum constant, a measure of the movement of these space objects does
not change. This
persistence in the angular momentum explains that kpf dancers whirl
around the ice movement Serbah spindle when it includes dance his arms
to be in the vicinity of the axis of rotation movement of the body and
the closer the arms increases the speed while retaining the strongly
angular momentum. When the dancer arms simplifies the less speed as an end result of the movement spindle. And we find this clear in a game (Dokhina Amona) played by children. The
spin of the cloud makes it within the group of asterisk to shrink
itself and carry with them a part of the original angular momentum. These clouds have fun rotating discs made up their bodies accumulate and condense to stars and planets revolving. , There is no doubt that each planet and the year of his day. Today determines duration of the period in which a planet orbits the same. The earth revolves around the same times every 24 hours until this day. Foimha equivalent to 24 hours. And year for each planet equal to the number of days which a planet orbits a complete cycle in orbit around the sun. For this year of land equivalent to 365 days and a quarter day.
Why Madart planets around the sun a regular basis?. Why located in the same plane? . Why spin in the same direction in nearly circular orbits? All
this force of gravity caused by the sun which is the dominant force in
the solar system. And Tattabral astronomical unit (AU) is the
astronomical unit, which is measured by the distance between the planet
and the sun. And one astronomical unit (1AU) is the average distance between Earth and the sun. While the planet Mercury from the sun is just 0.39 AU, we find Pluto is just about 39 AU. This
year, we find Mercury equivalent to 88 days overland to the proximity
of the sun and the planet Pluto year equal to 248 days orbiting the
ground a full cycle around the sun. While
we find the earth revolves on its axis around itself a complete cycle
every 24 hours, we find Jupiter is about the same in less than 10 hours
of ground while Venus is about the same once every 243 Earth days where
going from east to west.
Some of the terms:
is given in each celestial body is the moon in the sky during the
night, and also includes (star phones), any planets (which do not
radiate themselves); In astronomy star Fidel gas flare on the ball and
with a high temperature. The
stars also called in on astronomical constants Star, because it is
assumed in the foot as fixed planets in the sky in contrast to "star
the sun is a star as well, the stars are different sizes and the
blocks, there are stars in the universe is smaller than the sun and the
other much larger, and the star of our sun, but the billions of stars in
the galaxy and the universe as a whole.
Stages and developments of the stars: The stars go through stages before they decay or explode. We know that about 70% of the atmosphere of the sun consists of hydrogen and 30% helium. In the sub-opposite, where we find a significant inverse proportions. It
has been assumed the scientists that hydrogen subcontractor under
pressure is too high causing the separation of electrons from the
nucleus, which makes the hydrogen component of the nucleus only, and
become the nucleus of hydrogen to the nucleus of helium so-called
combution and the movement of energy resulting from the conversion to
the surface in two ways, one lasting millions of years and the other
faster ones. The energy resulting from the conversion of solar energy is a great resource. Continue
to the sun in the consumption of hydrogen to exhaust the stock knowing
that the subcontractor depends on the stock surface in the process,
Fbanaadam inventory sun begins lying down under under the control of
gravity and grow even burn Mercury, Venus, Earth to reach Mars and then
become white and ranging light to subside and fade forever, this Scientists
say all but the smallest or the star of such developments, the sun has
the same except that the stars explode Aledeimh the so-called supernova
explosion and the different outcomes may remain the star and black hole
may be formed or forming another star again.
is a celestial body orbit revolves around the sun or star in the main
group, and about the same, and generates energy through nuclear fusion. There are 9 planets in our solar system has been discovered about 110 planets outside our solar system.
No second name is known by the moon is the moon! However,
the word "moon," used to refer to any celestial body or artificial, is a
specific orbit around the Earth, or any of the other planets, Saturn
Vkkb for example, has eighteen moons (follower). There is another name to the moon and is sometimes called the "Luna". And
the side of the moon which is not seen from Earth called the "far
side", or "dark side", and was named to the inability of human beings
from viewed from the earth, if there was a spaceship on the dark side
will not be able wireless communication between the Earth and the
are pieces rocks floating in space, and when they pass near the Earth,
the Earth's gravitational drag it, and when you enter the Earth's
atmosphere, they come into contact with air, and get hotter and break
down usually to either dust or evaporate, which could reach some parts
to the ground, and passing through the atmosphere and high temperature The rapid fall makes it look shiny STARS moving quickly, I think some of it falling stars.
the Haditha area in Anbar province in Iraq, there is a large hole from
the fall of a meteorite impact crater called the (Balkhsfah) often
frequented Aljiuljeon to study the components of the soil.
star Ghazi in the solar system, orbiting the sun all the planets and of
which the Earth and other objects spins both of them within the
geostationary orbit around the sun varies these objects between an
asteroid, meteor, comet and cosmic dust. And the sun star glowed a
result of interactions Alheilom and the speed of Andalqtaban
greater than the speed in the middle, with a temperature of about 6000
degrees Celsius on the surface and 15 million degrees Celsius in is
marked by the closest star to us in the solar system, who is also the
cause of the stability of the solar system and non-spacing for some of
the size of the sun is equal to one million times the size of the floor,
scientists can calculate how long will stop the sun from the emission of light and heat after the Plain of years when the volume of helium gas = half remaining.
Planets of the solar system:
The nine planets .. Have been newly discovered tenth planet are as follows:
It was discovered about 110 planets outside our solar system.
is the second smallest planets of our solar system and the closest to
the Sun, a diameter of about 4880 km and a mass of 0.055 of the mass of
the earth. The appeal is by 0.387 of Earth's gravity.
rapidly in the sky morning and disappears quickly in the sky Con. Erie
and from the ground because it shows for several days in the year where
Eicherq above the horizon. If you travel to Mercury, for example, the weight will not exceed your weight on the ground. This
is not caused by the duration of the trip, which cut off above the
spacecraft, but because the size of Mercury is less than the size of the
earth. For this appeal is less than Earth's gravity. If your weight above the ground 70 kg Above Mercury will be 27 kg. And
so close to the sun it will burn the person to die. And because it
revolves around itself very slowly, it becomes very cold at night to
freezing. And its surface scars and craters volcanoes and valleys. The Mercury has no moons belonging to him. Which
is very close to the Sun to the faces of the ocean has a very small
Bddth solar wind that is blowing him and this shows that there does not
air on this small planet. - High temperature (465 ° C) and microprocessor (-184) - faces by the gases hydrogen and helium.
Distance from the Sun:
الله وبحمده سبحان الله